Jim's Aviation Notes

April 5, 2010

Cirrus CATs Online Training

Filed under: — jcramer @ 5:35 pm

Chapter 1 – Information/Limitations – April 5, 2010

– Airspeed Indicator:

•White Arc: full flaps operating range, 62-104KIAS

•Green Arc: normal operating range, 73-177KIAS up to 17,500′ and 73-151KIAS at 25,000′, the upper end is Vno.

•Yellow Arc: caution range, smooth air only, 177-200KIAS up to 17,500′ and 151-170KIAS at 25,000′, lower limit is Vno and upper limit is Vne.

•Red Line: never exceed, 200KIAS up to 17,500′ and 170KIAS at 25,000′, Vne.

•Vso: stall speed, dirty, 62KIAS

•Vs 50%: stall speed with 50% flaps, 66KIAS

•Vs: stall speed with no flaps, 73KIAS

•Vx: best angle of climb, results in the greatest gain of altitude in the shortest horizontal distance, 79-83KIAS

•Vy: best rate of climb, results in the greatest gain in altitude per unit of time, 101-96KIAS

•Vfe: maximum flap extended speed, 50% flaps is 119KIAS, 100% flaps is 104KIAS which is indicated as the upper limit of the white arc.

•Vo: operating maneuver speed, 133KIAS at 3,400lbs, this is also the Vpd (maximum demonstrated parachute deployment).

•ISA: international standard atmosphere, where:

1) the air is a dry perfect gas,

2) the temperature at sea level is 15ºC,

3) the pressure at sea level is 29.92 in HG, and;

4) the temperature gradient from sea level to the altitude at which the temperature is -56.5ºC is -0.00198ºC per foot and zero above that altitude.

•Pressure Altitude: altitude read from the altimeter when the altimeter’s barometric adjustment has been set to 29.92in Hg.

•Standard Temperature: the temperature that would be found at a given pressure altitude in the standard atmosphere.  It is 15ºC (59ºF) at sea level pressure altitude and decreases approximately 2ºC (3.6ºF) for each 1,000′ of altitude increase.

•MCP: maximum continuous power, the max power that can be used continuously.

•MAP: manifold pressure, green arc: 15-29.6 in HG, yellow arc 29.6-32 in Hg, red line 32 in Hg, do not reduce below 15′ when above 18,000′.

•Static RPM: the RPM attained during a full-throttle engine runup when the airplane is on the ground and stationary.

•Maximum Demonstrated Crosswind Velocity: 20KIAS (takeoff or landing)

•NMPG: nautical miles per gallon, the distance which can be expected per gallon of fuel consumed at a specific engine power setting and/or flight configuration.

•C.G.: center of gravity, the point at which the airplane would balance if suspended.

•Basic Empty Weight: weight of the plane, unusable fuel and full oil.

•Maximum Gross Weight: max permissible weight of the airplane and it’s contents, 3,400lbs.

•Useful Load: the basic empty weight subtracting from the maximum weight, it’s the maximum allowable combined weight of pilot, passengers, fuel, and baggage.

•Engine Red Line: 2,700RPMs

•CHT: cylinder heat temperatures, green arc: 240º-420ºF, yellow arc 420º-460ºF, red line 460ºF

•EGT: exhaust gas temperatures

•TIT: turbine inlet temperature, red line 1,750ºF

•Fuel Flow: green arc: 10-36 GPH, yellow arc 36-39 GPH, red line 39 GPH

•Oil Temperature: green arc: 100º-240ºF and red line 240ºF

•Oil Pressure: red line minimum 10PSI, green arc: 30-60PSI, yellow arc 10-30PSI and 60-100PSI, red line maximum 100PSI

•Voltmeter: green arc 24-30Volts, red line 32Volts

•Angle of bank is limited to 60º

•Do not operate the airplane below an outside air temperature of 40º

•Total Fuel Capacity: 94.5 gal, usable 92 gal, maximum fuel imbalance is 10 gal.

•Full Fuel Payload: 676 lbs, maximum allowable weight of pilot, passengers, and baggage combined, assuming the plane is full of fuel.

•The fuel system BOOST pump must be on for takeoff, landing and switching fuel tanks.

•Maximum Takeoff Altitude: 10,000′, Maximum Operating Altitude: 25,000′

•MFD: should not be used as the primary navigation instrument.

•No flaps or 50% are approved for takeoff settings.  No flaps, 50%, or 100% are approved for landing settings.  Do not use flaps above 17,500′.

Chapter 2 – Emergency Procedures – April 6, 2010

-Methodology can be broken down into 4 basic actions:

•Maintain Aircraft Control- never stop flying, aviate, navigate, communicate!

•Analyze the Situation- what’s the plane telling you?

•Take Appropriate Action

•Land As Soon As Conditions Permit

-The 5 P’s of Risk Management:

•Plan- as in flight planning


•Pilot- use the IMSAFE checklist (illness, medication, stress, alcohol, fatigue, and eating)

•Passengers- involve them in the decision making process

•Programming- avionics

Engine Fire During Startup:

A fire during engine start may be caused by fuel igniting in the fuel induction system. If this occurs, attempt to draw the fire back into the engine by continuing to crank the engine.

1) Mixture————-CUTOFF

2) Fuel Pump———-OFF

3) Fuel Selector——-OFF

4) Power Lever——-FORWARD

5) Starter————–CRANK

6) If fire persists, do Emergency Engine Shutdown on the Ground and Emergency Ground Egress checklists.

Emergency Engine Shutdown on the Ground:

An emergency engine shutdown may be necessary if there is an engine fire during start or if the aircraft will unavoidably impact an object or structure on the ground, such as during an aborted takeoff.

1) Power Level——–IDLE

2) Fuel Pump———-OFF

3) Mixture————-CUTOFF

4) Fuel Selector——-OFF

5) Ignition Switch—-OFF

6) Bat-Alt Master Switches—OFF

Emergency Ground Egress:

1) Engine————SHUTDOWN

2) Seat Belts——–RELEASE

3) Airplane———EXIT

Engine Failure on Takeoff:

If the engine fails immediately after becoming airborne, abort on the runway if possible. If altitude precludes a runway stop but is not sufficient to restart the engine, lower the nose to maintain airspeed and establish a glide attitude. In most cases, the landing should be made straight ahead, turning only to avoid obstructions. After establishing a glide for landing, perform as many checklist items as time permits.

1) Best Glide or Landing Speed——-ESTABLISH 88KIAS

2) Mixture——————————-CUTOFF

3) Fuel Selector————————-OFF

4) Ignition Switch———————–OFF

5) Flaps———————————–AS REQUIRED

6) If Time Permits:

7) Power Lever————————–IDLE

8) Fuel Pump—————————-OFF

9) Bat-Alt Master Switches————OFF

10) Seat Belts—————————-ENSURE SECURED

Engine Failure in Flight:

If the engine fails at altitude, pitch as necessary to  establish best glide speed. While gliding toward a suitable landing area, attempt to identify the cause of the failure and correct it.

1) Best Glide or Landing Speed——-ESTABLISH 88KIAS

2) Mixture——————————-AS REQUIRED

3) Fuel Selector————————-SWITCH TANKS

4) Fuel Pump—————————-LOW BOOST

5) Air Conditioner———————OFF

6) Ignition Switch———————-CHECK, BOTH

7) If no start, perform Engine Airstart or Forced Landing checklist

Unexpected Loss of Manifold Pressure:

If for any reason the aircraft experiences an unexpected loss of normal manifold pressure, the aircraft will typically revert to operation similar to a normally aspirated aircraft at approximately the same altitude. However, continued flight should only be conducted to the nearest suitable landing place in order to investigate the cause of the unexpected loss of normal manifold pressure. Adjust mixture so that EGTs are between 1300 and 1400°F.

The two most likely causes of this condition are:

• A leak or rupture at an induction system coupling or a loose or failed hose clamp. This condition does not usually present a significant hazard and can usually be repaired promptly at most repair facilities.

• A significant leak in the Exhaust System.

This condition may present an immediate hazard to continued safe flight, including a possible fire hazard. Because it is difficult to distinguish between an induction system leak and an exhaust system leak, all unexpected losses of normal manifold pressure should be treated as being caused by an exhaust leak until proven otherwise.

1) Power Lever————————–REDUCE

2) Engine———————————MONITOR

3) Altitude——————————-DESCEND

4) Delcare an emergency

Engine Airstart:

The following procedures address the most common causes for engine loss. Switching tanks and turning the fuel pump on will enhance starting if fuel contamination was the cause of the failure. Leaning the mixture and then slowly enriching mixture may correct faulty mixture control.

•  Note  •  Engine airstarts may be performed during 1g flight anywhere within the normal operating envelope of the airplane.

1) Bat Master Switches———————–ON

2) Power Lever——————————–1/2″ OPEN

3) Mixture————————————–RICH, AS REQUIRED

4) Fuel Selector——————————–SWITCH TANKS

5) Ignition Switch——————————BOTH

6) Fuel Pump———————————–BOOST

7) Alternate Induction Air——————–ON

8) Alt Master Switches————————-OFF

9) Starter (propeller not windmilling)——ENGAGE

10) Power Lever——————————–slowly INCREASE

11) Alt Master Switches————————ON

12) If no start, perform Forced Landing checklist

Engine Partial Power Loss:

Indications of a partial power loss include fluctuating RPM, reduced or fluctuating manifold pressure, low oil pressure, high oil temperature, and a rough-sounding or rough-running engine. Mild engine roughness in flight may be caused by one or more spark plugs becoming fouled. A sudden engine roughness or misfiring is usually evidence of a magneto malfunction.

• Note • Low oil pressure may be indicative of an imminent engine failure – Refer to the Low Oil Pressure procedure for special procedures with low oil pressure.

• Note • A damaged (out-of-balance) propeller may cause extremely rough operation. If an out-of-balance propeller is suspected, immediately shut down the engine and perform the Emergency Landing Without Engine Power checklist.

If a partial engine failure permits level flight, land at a suitable airfield as soon as conditions permit. If conditions do not permit safe level flight, use partial power as necessary to set up a forced landing pattern over a suitable landing field. Always be prepared for a complete engine failure.

If the power loss is due to a fuel leak in the injector system, fuel sprayed over the engine may be cooled by the slipstream airflow which may prevent a fire at altitude. However, as the power lever is reduced during descent and approach to landing the cooling air may not be sufficient to prevent an engine fire.

• WARNING • If there is a strong smell of fuel in the cockpit, divert to the nearest suitable landing field. Fly a forced landing pattern and shut down the engine fuel supply once a safe landing is assured. The procedure below provides guidance to isolate and correct some of the conditions contributing to a rough running engine or a partial power loss.

1) Fuel Pump——————————-BOOST

2) Fuel Selector—————————-SWITCH TANKS

3) Mixture———————————-CHECK appropriate for flight conditions

4) Power Lever—————————–SWEEP

5) Alternate Induction Air—————ON

6) Ignition Switch————————-BOTH, L, then R

7) Land as soon as practical

Oil Pressure Out of Range:

If low oil pressure is accompanied by a rise in oil temperature, the engine has probably lost a significant amount of its oil and engine failure may be imminent. Immediately reduce engine power to idle and select a suitable forced landing field.

• WARNING • Prolonged use of high power settings after loss of oil pressure will lead to engine mechanical damage and total engine failure, which could be catastrophic.

• Note • Full power should only be used following a loss of oil pressure when operating close to the ground and only for the time necessary to climb to an altitude permitting a safe landing or analysis of the low oil pressure indication to confirm oil pressure has actually been lost.

If low oil pressure is accompanied by normal oil temperature, it is possible that the oil pressure sensor, gauge, or relief valve is malfunctioning. In any case, land as soon as practical and determine the cause.

1) Oil Pressure Gauge—————————CHECK

If pressure normal: Flight———————-CONTINUE, MONITOR

If pressure high: Oil Temperature Gauge—–CHECK

If temperature low: Engine———————MONITOR OIL PRESS/TEMP

If temperature normal or high: Flight———LAND AS SOON AS PRACTICAL

Smoke & Fume Elimination:

If smoke and/or fumes are detected in the cabin, check the engine parameters for any sign of malfunction. If a fuel leak has occurred, actuation of electrical components may cause a fire. If there is a strong smell of fuel in the cockpit, divert to the nearest suitable landing field. Perform the Emergency Landing Without Engine Power checklist and shut down the fuel supply to the engine once a safe landing is assured.

1) Temperature Selector——————————-COLD

2) Vent Selector—————————————–FEET/PANEL/DEFROST POSITION

3) Airflow Selector————————————–SET FAN SPEED TO FULL ON (3) POSITION

If source of smoke and fumes is firewall forward:

a) Airflow Selector———————–OFF

4) Panel Eyeball Outlets——————————–OPEN

5) Prepare to land as soon as possible

If airflow is not sufficient to clear smoke or fumes from cabin:

6) Cabin Doors——————————————-PARTIALLY OPEN

Engine Fire in Flight:

If an engine fire occurs during flight, do not attempt to restart the engine.

1) Mixture—————–CUTOFF

2) Fuel Pump————-OFF

3) Fuel Selector———-OFF

4) Airflow Selector——-OFF

5) Power Lever———–IDLE

6) Ignition Switch——–OFF

7) Cabin Doors————PARTIALLY OPEN

8) Land as soon as possible

Wing Fire in Flight:

A wing fire is usually associated with the electrical components located in the wing.

1) Pitot Heat Switch—————OFF

2) Navigation Light Switch——-OFF

3) Landing Light——————-OFF

4) Strobe Light Switch————OFF

5) If possible, side slip to keep flames away from fuel tank and cabin.

6) Land as soon as possible

Cabin Fire in Flight:

If the cause of the fire is readily apparent and accessible, use the fire extinguisher to extinguish the flames and land as soon as possible. Opening the vents may feed the fire, but to avoid incapacitating the crew from smoke inhalation, it may be necessary to rid the cabin of smoke or fire extinguishant. If the cause of the fire is not readily apparent, is electrical, or is not readily accessible, follow the checklist below.

• WARNING • If the airplane is in IMC conditions, turn ALT 1, ALT 2, and BAT 1 switches OFF. Power from BAT 2 will keep the Primary Flight Display operational for approximately 30 minutes.

1) Bat-Alt Master Switches———————————————–OFF, AS REQUIRED

2) Fire Extinguisher——————————————————-ACTIVATE

If airlfow is not sufficient to clear smoke or fume from cabin:

3) Cabin Doors————————————————————–PARTIALLY OPEN

4) Avionics Power Switch————————————————-OFF

5) All other switches——————————————————-OFF

6) Land as soon as possible.

If setting master switches off eliminated source of fire or fumes and airplane is in night, weather, or IFR conditions:

7) Airflow Selector———————————————————OFF

8) Bat-Alt Master Switches————————————————ON

9) Avionics Power Switch————————————————-ON

10) Activate required systems one at a time.  Pause several seconds between activating each system to isolate malfunctioning system.  Continue flight to earliest possible landing with malfunctioning system off.  Activate only the minimum amount of equipment necessary to complete safe landing.

Emergency Descent:

The fastest way to get the airplane down is to descend at Vne. (200KIAS)

1) Power Lever—————–IDLE

2) Mixture———————-AS REQUIRED

3) Airspeed———————Vne 200KIAS

Inadvertent Spiral Dive – IMC Flight:

In all cases, if the aircraft enters an unusual attitude from which recovery is not assured, immediately deploy CAPS. See the CAPS topic in the Airplane Description section for CAPS deployment information.

1) Power Lever———————IDLE

2) Stop the spiral dive by using coordinated aileron and rudder control while referring to the attitude indicator and turn coordinator to level the wings.

3) Cautiously apply elevator back pressure to bring airplane to level flight attitude.

4) Trim for level flight

5) Set power as required

6) Use autopilot if functional otherwise keeps hands off control yoke, use rudder to hold constant heading.

7) Exit IMC conditions as soon as possible.


This aircraft is not approved for spins, and has not been tested or certified for spin recovery characteristics. The only approved and demonstrated method of spin recovery is activation of the Cirrus Airframe Parachute System (See the CAPS Deployment procedure). Because of this, if the aircraft “departs controlled flight,” the CAPS must be deployed. While the stall characteristics of this aircraft make accidental entry into a spin extremely unlikely, it is possible. Spin entry can be avoided by using good airmanship: coordinated use of controls in turns, proper airspeed control following the recommendations of the Pilot’s Operating Handbook, and never abusing the flight controls with accelerated inputs when close to the stall. If, at the stall, the controls are misapplied and abused accelerated inputs are made to the elevator, rudder and/or ailerons, an abrupt wing drop may be felt and a spiral or spin may be entered. In some cases it may be difficult to determine if the aircraft has entered a spiral or the beginning of a spin.

• WARNING •In all cases, if the aircraft enters an unusual attitude from which recovery is not expected before ground impact, immediate deployment of the CAPS is required.


CAPS Deployment:

The Cirrus Airframe Parachute System (CAPS) should be activated in the event of a life-threatening emergency where CAPS deployment is determined to be safer than continued flight and landing.

• WARNING •CAPS deployment is expected to result in loss of the airframe and, depending upon adverse external factors such as high deployment speed, low altitude, rough terrain or high wind conditions, may result in severe injury or death to the occupants. Because of this, CAPS should only be activated when any other means of handling the emergency would not protect the occupants from serious injury.

• Caution •Expected impact in a fully stabilized deployment is equivalent to a drop from approximately 10 feet.

• Note •Several possible scenarios in which the activation of the CAPS would be appropriate are discussed in the Pilot’s Operating Handbook Section 10 – Safety Information. These include:
• Mid-air collision
• Structural failure
• Loss of control
• Landing in inhospitable terrain
• Pilot incapacitation

All pilots should carefully review the information on CAPS activation and deployment in the Pilot’s Operating handbook Section 10 before operating the airplane.

CAPS Deployment at High Altitudes

For any indicated airspeed, as altitudes increase the true airspeed of the deployment increases. Higher true airspeeds increase the parachute inflation loads. This makes it all the more important for the operator to take all reasonable efforts to slow to the minimum possible airspeed prior to deploying the CAPS.

Once the decision is made to deploy CAPS, the procedure listed on the checklist below should be followed.

1) Airspeed————————————–MINIMUM POSSIBLE

2) Mixture (if time and altitude permit)—-CUTOFF

3) Activation Handle Cover——————-REMOVE

4) Activation Handle—————————PULL STRAIGHT DOWN

After deployment:

5) Mixture—————————————-CHECK, CUTOFF

6) Fuel Selector———————————-OFF

7) Bat-Alt Master Switches——————–OFF

8) Ignition Switch——————————-OFF

9) Fuel Pump————————————-OFF

10) ELT——————————————–ON

11) Seat Belts & Harnesses———————-TIGHTEN

12) Loose Items———————————-SECURE

13) Assume emergency landing body position: place both hands on the lap, clasping one wrist with the opposite hand, and holding the upper torso erect and against the seat backs.

14) After airplane comes to a complete stop, evacuate quickly and move upwind

Emergency Landing Without Engine Power:

Flaps Up: 90KIAS

Flaps 50%: 85KIAS

Flaps 100%: 80KIAS

If all attempts to restart the engine fail and a forced landing is imminent, select a suitable field and prepare for the landing. If flight conditions or terrain do not permit a safe landing, CAPS deployment may be required. Refer to the CAPS topic in the Airplane Description section for CAPS deployment scenarios and landing considerations.

A suitable field should be chosen as early as possible so that maximum time will be available to plan and execute the forced landing. For forced landings on unprepared surfaces, use full flaps if possible. Land on the main gear and hold the nose wheel off the ground as long as possible. If engine power is available, before attempting an “off airport” landing, fly over the landing area at a low but safe altitude to inspect the terrain for obstructions and surface conditions.

1) Best Glide Speed———————–ESTABLISH 88 KIAS

2) Radio————————————TRANSMIT (121.5 MHz) MAYDAY

3) Transponder—————————SQUAWK 7700

4) If off airport, ELT———————-ACTIVATE

5) Power Lever—————————-IDLE

6) Mixture———————————CUTOFF

7) Fuel Selector—————————OFF

8) Ignition Switch————————-OFF

9) Fuel Pump——————————OFF

10) Flaps (when landing is assured)—100%

11) Master Switches———————-OFF

12) Seat Belt(s)—————————-SECURED


If an emergency landing on water is necessary or preferable, follow the below procedure.

1) Radio——————————–TRANSMIT (121.5 MHz) MAYDAY giving location and intentions

2) Transponder———————–SQUAWK 7700

3) CAPS——————————–ACTIVATE

4) Airplane—————————EVACUATE

5) Flotation Devices—————-INFLATE WHEN CLEAR OF AIRPLANE

Landing Without Elevator Control:

The pitch trim spring cartridge is attached directly to the elevator and provides a backup should you lose the primary elevator control system. Set elevator trim for a 80 KIAS approach to landing. Thereafter, do not change the trim setting until in the landing flare. During the flare, the nose-down moment resulting from a power reduction may cause the airplane to hit on the nosewheel. To avoid this, move the trim button to the full nose-up position during the flare and adjust the power for a smooth landing. At touchdown, bring the power lever to idle.

1) Flaps————SET 50%

2) Trim————SET 80 KIAS


PFD Display Failure:

In the event of a complete, unrecoverable PFD failure, follow the procedure above.

1) Display Backup—————–ACTIVATE

2) Land as soon as practical

Air Data Computer Failure:

In the event the PFD detects a loss of air data, the affected indicator is removed from the display and replaced with a red “X”. If loss of air data occurs, refer to the mechanical standby instruments (altitude, airspeed) and perform the procedure below.

1) ADC Circuit Breaker——————-SET (if open, close. If reopens, don’t reset)

2) Revert to Standby Instruments (Altitude, Airspeed)

3) Land as soon as practical

Attitude Heading & Reference System Failure:

In the event the PFD detects a loss of attitude data, the affected indicator is removed from the display and replaced with a red “X”. If loss of attitude data occurs, refer to the mechanical standby instruments (attitude, heading) and perform the procedure below.

1) Verify Avionics System has switched to operating AHRS

2) Failed AHRS Circuit Breaker————————–SET

3) Be prepared to revert to Standby Instruments (Altitude, Heading)

Propeller Governor Failure:

If the RPM does not respond to power lever movement or overspeeds, the most likely cause is a faulty governor or an oil system malfunction. If moving the power lever is difficult or rough, suspect a power lever linkage failure and perform the Power Lever Linkage Failure checklist.

Propeller RPM will not increase:

1) Oil Pressure———————————–CHECK

2) Land as soon as practical

Propeller RPM will not decrease:

1) Power Lever———————————-ADJUST (to keep RPM in limits)

2) Airspeed————————————–REDUCE to 90 KIAS

3) Land as soon as practical

Power Lever Linkage Failure:

If the power lever linkage fails in flight, the engine will not respond to power lever control movements. Use power available and flaps as required to safely land the airplane.

If the power lever is stuck at or near the full power position, proceed to a suitable airfield. Fly a forced landing pattern. With landing assured, shut down the engine by moving the mixture to CUTOFF. If power is needed again, return the mixture control to full RICH and regain safe pattern parameters or go-around. If airspeed cannot be controlled, shut the engine down and perform the Emergency Landing Without Engine Power checklist. After landing, bring the airplane to a stop and complete the Emergency Engine Shutdown on Ground checklist.

If the power lever is stuck at or near the idle position and straight and level flight cannot be maintained, establish a glide to a suitable landing surface. Fly a forced landing pattern.

1) Power Lever Movement—————–VERIFY

2) Power—————————————SET if able

3) Flaps—————————————-SET if needed

4) Mixture————————————-AS REQUIRED (full rich to cut-off)

5) Land as soon as possible

-Alternator Failure:

The most likely cause of the alternator failure is a wiring fault, a malfunctioning alternator, or a malfunctioning control unit.  Usually, electrical power malfunctions are accompied by an excessive rate of charge or discharge, shown on the ammeter.

If it is necessary to reduce electrical loads due to an alternator malfunction, switch off electrical components and/or systems that are not essential for the current flight conditions rather than pulling circuit breakers.  Load shedding in this manner will prevent accidental circuit breaker disconnection and loss of power to flight-critical systems.

• Caution • Alternators in this airplane are self-exciting.  These alternators require battery power for alternator starting.  However, once started, the alternators will provide self-generated field power to continue operation in case of a battery failure.  To assure alternator restart power is available it the alternators fail, the batteries should NOT be turned off during flight!

Chapter 3 – Abnormal Procedures – April 13, 2010

– Steps for Abnormal Situations:

• Maintain Aircraft Control

• Analyze the Situation

• Take Appropriate Action

-Brake Failure During Taxi:

1) Engine Power——————————AS REQUIRED

2) Directional Control ———————-MAINTAIN WITH RUDDER

3) Brake Pedal(s)—————————–PUMP

If directional control can not be maintained:

4) Ignition Switch—————————–OFF

-Aborted Takeoff:

1) Power Lever——————————IDLE

2) Brakes————————————-AS REQUIRED

-Inadvertently Retarding Power Lever (Turbo):

Below 18,000 Feet
Retarding the power lever to idle at or near a full rich mixture setting may cause engine combustion to cease, depending on the position of the fuel pump and altitude. At altitudes below 18,000 feet, advancing the throttle should cause resumption of normal engine operation.

Retarding the power lever to idle at or near a very lean mixture setting may cause engine combustion to cease. This is most likely to occur when the RPM falls with decreasing airspeed on landing or roll out after landing. Using the boost pump in the LOW BOOST position during approach and landing will prevent this condition.

• WARNING •Inadvertent use of the HIGH BOOST/PRIME position of the electric Fuel Pump, with the Power Lever near or in the idle position may prevent the engine from regaining power when the Power Lever is advanced

Above 18,000 Feet
The manifold pressure should be maintained at or above 15″ Hg (bottom of the green arc on the manifold pressure gage) when the aircraft is operating above 18,000 feet. If the manifold pressure is reduced below 15″ Hg and the Power Lever positioned close to or at idle, the engine may cease combustion. Upon advancing the Power Lever, if the wind milling engine does not immediately regain power, the below procedure should be used:

1) Electric Fuel Pump——————————LOW BOOST

2) Power Lever ————————————-1/2 OPEN

3) Mixture Control———————————FULL RICH, then LEAN until engine starts then slowly advance to FULL RICH

4) Power Lever————————————-AS REQUIRED

5) Mixture——————————————AS REQUIRED

6) Electric Fuel Pump—————————–AS REQUIRED

-Inadvertent Icing Encounter:

1) Pitot Heat—————————————-ON

2) Exit icing condition.  Turn back or change altitude

3) Cabin Heat—————————————MAXIMUM

4) Windshield Defrost—————————-FULL OPEN

-Inadvertent IMC Encounter:

Upon entering IMC, a pilot who is not completely proficient in instrument flying should rely upon the autopilot to execute a 180° turn to exit the conditions. Immediate action should be made to turn back.

1) Airplane Control——————————Establish Straight and Level Flight

2) Autopilot—————————————Engage to hold Heading and Altitude

3) Heading—————————————–Reset to initiate 180º turn

-Door Open In Flight:

The doors will remain 1-3 inches open in flight if not latched. If this is discovered on takeoff roll, abort the takeoff if practical. If already airborne, follow the procedure below.

1) Airspeed—————————————-REDUCE TO 80-90 KIAS

2) Land as soon as practical

-One Brake Inoperative:

1) Land on the side of the runway corresponding to the inoperative brake

2) Maintain directional control using rudder and working brake

-Both Brakes Inoperative:

1) Divert to the longest, widest runway with the most direct headwind

2) Land on downwind side of the runway

3) Use the rudder for obstacle avoidance

4) Perform Emergency Engine Shutdown on Ground checklist

-Landing With Flat Main Gear:

1) Land on the side of the runway corresponding to the good tire

2) Maintain directional controlwith the brakes and rudder

3) Do not taxi.  Stop the airplane and perform a normal engine shutdown

-Landing With Flat Nose Gear:

1) Land in the center of the runway

2) Hold the nosewheel off the ground as long as possible

3) Do not taxi.  Stop the airplane and perform a normal engine shutdown

-Communications Failure:

Communications failure can occur for a variety of reasons. If, after following the checklist procedure, communication is not restored, proceed with FAR/AIM lost communications procedures.

1) Switches, Controls———————————CHECK

2) Frequency——————————————CHANGE

3) Circuit Breakers————————————CHECK

4) Headset———————————————-CHANGE

5) Hand Held Microphone—————————-CONNECT

-Pitot Static – Static Source Blocked:

If erroneous readings of the static source instruments (airspeed, altimeter and vertical speed) are suspected, the alternate static source valve, on side of console near pilot’s right ankle, should be opened to supply static pressure from the cabin to these instruments. With the alternate static source on, adjust indicated airspeed slightly during climb or approach according to the Airspeed Calibration (Alternate Static Source) table in Section 5 as appropriate for vent/ heater configuration.

1) Pitot Heat——————————————–ON

2)Alternate Static Source—————————-OPEN

-Pitot Static – Pitot Source Blocked:

If only the airspeed indicator is providing erroneous information, and in icing conditions, the most probable cause is pitot ice. If setting pitot heat ON does not correct the problem, descend to warmer air. If an approach must be made with a blocked pitot tube, use known pitch and power settings and the GPS groundspeed indicator, taking surface winds into account.

1) Pitot Heat——————————————–ON

-Electric Trim / Autopilot Failure:

1) Airplane Control– ——————————MAINTAIN MANUALLY

2) Autopilot (if engaged)—————————Disengage

3) If Problem is Not Corrected:

4) Circuit Breakers———————————-PULL AS REQUIRED





5) Power Lever————————————-AS REQUIRED

6) Control Yoke————————————MANUALLY HOLD PRESSURE

7) Land as soon as practical

Chapter 4 – Normal Procedures – April 21, 2010

– Preflight Inspection:

1) Cabin:

a. Required Documents———————ON BOARD

The airworthiness certificate, registration certificate, operating handbook, and weight and balance information. Also check that the pilot’s guides for the PFD, MFD, and autopilot are on board.

b. Avionics Power Switch——————-OFF

c. Bat 2 Master Switch———————–ON

d. PFD——————————————VERIFY ON

e. Avionics Cooling Fan———————AUDIBLE

f. Essential Bus Voltage———————-23-25 VOLTS

g. Flap Position Light————————OUT

h. Bat 1 Master Switch———————–ON

i. Lights—————————————-CHECK OPERATION

j. Stall Warning——————————–TEST

Test the stall warning system by applying suction to the stall warning system inlet and noting the warning horn sounds.

k. Fuel Quantity——————————-CHECK

l. Fuel Selector ——————————–SELECT FULLEST TANK

m. Flaps—————————————–100%, CHECK LIGHT IS ON

n. Oil Annunciator—————————–ON

o. Bat 1 and 2 Master Switches—————OFF

p. Alternate Static Source——————–NORMAL

q. Circuit Breakers—————————–IN

r. Fire Extinguisher—————————-CHARGED AND AVAILBABLE

s. Emergency Egress Hammer—————AVAILABLE

t. CAPS Handle———————————PIN REMOVED

2) Left Fuselage:

a. Door Lock————————————UNLOCK

b. COM 1 Antenna (top)———————–CONDITION & ATTACHMENT

c. Transponder Antenna (underside)——-CONDITION & ATTACHMENT

d. Wing/Fuselage Fairing———————CHECK

e. COM 2 Antenna (underside)—————CONDITION & ATTACHMENT

f. Baggage Door———————————CLOSED & SECURE

g. Static Button———————————CHECK FOR BLOCKAGE

h. Parachute Cover—————————-SEALED & SECURE

3) Empennage:

a. Tiedown Rope——————————-REMOVE

b. Horizontal & Vertical Stabilizers———CONDITION

c. Elevator & Tab——————————-CONDITION & MOVEMENT

Check the elevator counterweights and the security of the counterweight attachment screws.

d. Rudder—————————————-FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT

Check the rudder counterweight and the security of the counterweight attachment screws.

e. Rudder Trim Tab—————————-CONDITION & SECURITY

f. Attachment Hinges, Bolts & Cotter Pins–SECURE

4) Right Fuselage:

a. Static Button———————————CHECK FOR BLOCKAGE

b. Wing/Fuselage Fairings——————–CHECK

c. Door Lock————————————UNLOCK

5) Right Wing Trailing Edge:

a. Flap & Rub Strips (if installed)————-CONDITION & SECURITY

b. Aileron & Tab——————————–CONDITION & MOVEMENT

c. Aileron Gap Seal—————————–SECURITY

d. Hinges, Actuation Arm, Bolts & Cotter Pings–SECURE

6) Right Wing Tip:

a. Tip———————————————-ATTACHMENT

b. Strobe, Nav Light & Lens——————-CONDITION & SECURITY

c. Fuel Vent (underside)———————-UNOBSTRUCTED

7) Right Wing Forward & Main Gear:

a. Leading Edge & Stall Strips—————–CONDITION

b. Fuel Cap—————————————CHECK QUANTITY & SECURE

c. Fuel Drains (2 underside)——————-DRAIN & SAMPLE

d. Wheel Fairings——————————–SECURITY, ACCUMULATION OF DEBRIS

e. Tire———————————————CONDITION, INFLATION, & WEAR


g. Chocks & Tiedown Ropes——————–REMOVE

h. Cabin Air Vent——————————–UNOBSTRUCTED

8) Nose, Right Side:

a. Vortex Generator—————————-CONDITION

b. Cowling—————————————-ATTACHMENTS SECURE

c. Exhaust Pipe———————————-CONDITION, SECURITY, & CLEARANCE

d. Gascolator (underside)———————DRAIN FOR 3 SECONDS, SAMPLE

9) Nose Gear, Propeller, & Spinnger:

a. Tow Bar—————————————-REMOVE & STOW

b. Strut——————————————–CONDITION


d. Wheel & Tire———————————-CONDITION, INFLATION, & WEAR

e. Propeller————————————–CONDITION (Indentations, nicks, etc)

f. Spinner—————————————–CONDITION, SECURITY, & OIL LEAKS

g. Air Inlets————————————–UNOBSTRUCTED

h. Alternator————————————CONDITION

10) Nose, Left Side:

a. Landing Light———————————CONDITION

b. Engine Oil————————————–CHECK 6-8 QUARTS, LEAKS, CAP, DOOR SECURE

Seven quarts (dipstick indication) is recommended for extended flight.

c. Cowling—————————————-ATTACHMENTS SECURE

d. External Power——————————DOOR SECURE

e. Vortex Generator—————————CONDITION

f. Exhaust Pipe(s)——————————-CONDITION, SECURITY, & CLEARANCE

11) Left Main Gear & Forward Wing:

a. Wheel Fairings——————————–SECURITY, ACCUMULATION OF DEBRIS

b. Tire———————————————CONDITION, INFLATION, & WEAR


d. Chocks & Tiedown Ropes——————-REMOVE

e. Fuel Drains (2 underside)——————-DRAIN & SAMPLE

f. Cabin Air Vent——————————–UNOBSTRUCTED

g. Fuel Cap—————————————CHECK QUANTITY SECURE

h. Leading Edge & Stall Strips—————–CONDITION

12) Left Wing Tip:

a. Fuel Vent (underside)———————–UNOBSTRUCTED

b. Pitot Mast (underside)———————-COVER REMOVED, TUBE CLEAR

c. Strobe, Nav Light & Lens——————-CONDITION & SECURITY

d. Tip———————————————ATTACHMENT

13) Left Wing Trailing Edge:

a. Flap & rub Strips (if installed)————-CONDITION

b. Aileron—————————————-FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT

c. Aileron Gap Seal—————————–SECURITY

d. Hinges, Actuation Arm, Bolts & Cotter Pings–SECURE

– Before Starting Engine:

1) Preflight Inspection——————————COMPLETED

2) Weight & Balance———————————VERIFY WITHIN LIMITS

3) Emergency Equipment————————–ON BOARD

Including the fire extinguisher, emergency egress hammer, and any other emergency or survival equipment necessary for the flight.

4) Passengers—————————————–BRIEFED

Smoking, the use of the seat belts, doors, emergency exits, egress hammer, and CAPS.

5) Seats, Seat Belts, & Harnesses——————ADJUST & SECURE

-Starting Engine:

1) External Power (if applicable)——————CONNECT

2) Brakes———————————————–HOLD

3) Bat Master Switches——————————-ON (Check Volts)

4) Strobe Lights—————————————ON

5) Mixture———————————————-FULL RICH

6) Power Lever—————————————-FULL FORWARD

7) Fuel Pump——————————————LOW BOOST

(If the engine is warm priming is not required. On the first start of the day, especially under cool ambient conditions, holding the fuel pump switch to the HIGH BOOST/PRIME position for 2 seconds will improve starting.)

8) Propeller Area————————————-CLEAR

9) Power Lever—————————————-OPEN 1/4 INCH

10) Ignition Switch———————————–START (Release after engine starts)

• Limit cranking to intervals of 20 seconds with a 20 second cooling period between cranks. This will improve battery and contactor life.

• Weak intermittent firing followed by puffs of black smoke from the exhaust stack indicates over-priming or flooding. Excess fuel can be cleared from the combustion chambers by the following procedure:

• Turn fuel pump off.

• Allow fuel to drain from intake tubes.

• Set the mixture control full lean and the power lever full open.

• Crank the engine through several revolutions with the starter.

• When engine starts, release ignition switch, retard power lever, and slowly advance the mixture control to FULL RICH position.

• If the engine is under-primed, especially with a cold soaked engine, it will not fire, and additional priming will be necessary. As soon as the cylinders begin to fire, open the power lever slightly to keep it running. Refer to Cold Weather Operation in Environmental Considerations for additional information regarding cold weather operations.

11) Power Lever—————————————RETARD (to maintain 1000RPM)

12) Oil Pressure—————————————-CHECK

(After starting, if the oil pressure indication does not begin to show pressure within 30 seconds in warm weather and about 60 seconds in very cold weather, shut down the engine and investigate the cause. Lack of oil pressure indicates loss of lubrication, which can cause severe engine damage.)

13) Mixture———————————————LEAN until RPM rises to maximum value

14) Alt Master Switches——————————ON

15) Avionics Power Switch————————–ON

16) Engine Parameters——————————-MONITOR

17) External Power (if applicable)—————–DISCONNECT

18) Amp Meter/Indication————————–CHECK

(Check the ammeter indications. An initial increased load on ALT 1 may occur, but should decrease gradually as BAT 1 is charged. A very high ALT 1 load that does not decrease may indicate that the starter did not disengage properly. In this case, the resulting overload can severely damage the electrical system and the engine should be shut down immediately.)

– Before Taxiing:

1) Flaps————————————————-UP (0%)

2) Radios/Avionics———————————–AS REQUIRED

3) Cabin Heat/Defrost——————————–AS REQUIRED

4) Fuel Selector—————————————-SWITCH TANK

– Taxiing:

1) Parking Brake—————————————DISENGAGE

2) Brakes———————————————–CHECK

3) HSI Orientation————————————CHECK

4) Attitude Gyro————————————–CHECK

5) Turn Coordinator———————————-CHECK

– Before Takeoff:

During cold weather operations, the engine should be properly warmed up before takeoff. In most cases this is accomplished when the oil temperature has reached at least 100°F (38°C). In warm or hot weather, precautions should be taken to avoid overheating during prolonged ground engine operation. Additionally, long periods of idling may cause fouled spark plugs.

1) Doors————————————————-LATCHED

2) CAPS Handle—————————————-VERIFY PIN REMOVED

3) Seat Belts & Shoulder Harness——————–SECURE

4) Fuel Quantity—————————————-CONFIRM

5) Fuel Selector—————————————–FULLEST TANK

6) Fuel Pump——————————————–LOW BOOST

7) Mixture———————————————–AS REQUIRED

• Caution • Because this aircraft has a turbonormalizing system that maintains near sea level manifold pressure for all takeoffs, the mixture should normally be full rich for takeoff, even at high elevation airports. Leaning for takeoff and during maximum performance climb may cause excessive cylinder head temperatures.

8) Flaps————————————————–SET 50%, CHECK

9) Transponder—————————————–SET

10) Autopilot——————————————-CHECK

11) Navigation Radios/GPS—————————SET FOR TAKEOFF

12) Cabin Heat/Defrost——————————–AS REQUIRED

13) Brakes———————————————–HOLD

14) Power Lever—————————————-1700 RPM

15) Alternator——————————————-CHECK

a. Pitot Heat—————————————ON

b. Navigation Lights—————————–ON

c. Landing Lights———————————ON

Limit landing light operation on the ground to 3-5 seconds to prevent overheating of the light.

d. Annunciator Lights—————————CHECK

16) Voltage———————————————-CHECK

(Normal range 24-30 volts.)

17) Pitot Heat——————————————-AS REQUIRED

• Note • Pitot heat should be turned ON prior to flight into IMC or flight into visible moisture and OAT of 40°F (4°C) or less.

18) Navigation Lights———————————-AS REQUIRED

(Turn on the navigation lights if operating between sunset and sunrise.)

19) Landing Lights————————————-AS REQUIRED

20) Magnetos——————————————-CHECK LEFT & RIGHT

RPM drop = 150, difference between mags = 75 RPM

21) Engine Parameters———————————CHECK

22) Power Lever—————————————–1000 RPM

23) Flight Instruments, HSI, & Altimeter———–CHECK & SET

24) Flight Controls————————————–FREE & CORRECT

25) Trim—————————————————SET TAKEOFF

26) Autopilot——————————————–DISCONNECT

-Normal Takeoffs

Flap Settings: Normal and short field takeoffs are accomplished with flaps set at 50%. Takeoffs using 0% are permissible, however, no performance data is available for takeoffs in the flaps up configuration. Takeoffs with 100% flaps are not approved.

Fuel BOOST should be left ON during takeoff and for clim b as required for vapor suppression with hot or warm fuel.

1) Brakes————————————————-RELEASE (Steer with rudder only)

2) Power Lever——————————————FULL FORWARD

3) Engine Power—————————————-CHECK

• Note • Manifold pressure may temporarily increase to 31 – 32 in Hg on the first flight of the day due to cooler oil temperatures and associated higher oil pressures. This is acceptable under these conditions but normally full throttle should be 29.6 in Hg. The fuel flow will normally also increase in proportion to the increase in manifold pressure. If manifold pressure exceeds 32.0 in Hg on takeoff or during full power climbs, reduce power to maintain no more than 32.0 in Hg.  As the oil temperature increases during the climb the full power manifold pressure will steadily decline to a level near the normal 29.6 in Hg manifold pressure value at the top of the green arc. If the engine operates above 31.0 in Hg for more than two minutes after takeoff, then the system needs to be readjusted.

During full power climbs or high power cruise with the oil temperature above 190°F, if the manifold pressure consistently exceeds 29.6 in Hg, then the system should be adjusted to reduce manifold pressure under these conditions.

Above 18,000 feet, HIGH BOOST / PRIME may be required on hot days for vapor suppression.

a. Verify full-throttle engine operation early in takeoff run.

b. The engine should run smoothly and turn approximately 2700 RPM.

4) Engine Parameters———————————-CHECK

5) Elevator Control————————————-ROTATE SMOOTHLY @ 70-73KIAS

6) At 80KIAS, Flaps————————————UP

-Short Field Takeoff:

1) Flaps—————————————————50%

2) Brakes————————————————-HOLD

3) Power Lever——————————————FULL FORWARD

4) Mixture———————————————–SET

5) Engine Parameters———————————CHECK

– Climb:

Two climb procedures are available: A normal climb at Vy, and a cruise climb with the mixture set at lean of peak.

1) Oxygen———————————————–AS REQUIRED

2) Power Lever—————————————–FULL FORWARD

3) Mixture———————————————–FULL RICH

4) Airspeed———————————————-Vy

• Below 7,500 feet…………120 KIAS

• Above 7,500 feet…………130 KIAS

5) Electric Fuel Pump———————————-LOW BOOST

6) Fuel Flow———————————————-MONITOR

During a full power climb, full-rich fuel flow may slowly decline from the normal sea level range of 35 to 36 GPH down to 33 GPH. This is acceptable, but will usually be corrected by use of LOW BOOST (below 18,000 feet) or HIGH BOOST/PRIME (above 18,000 feet). If cylinder head temperatures consistently exceed 380ºF, use higher airspeeds for better cooling.

7) Engine Parameters———————————-MONITOR

Maintain the hottest CHT at or below 380ºF whenever practical. Intermittent CHTs up to 410ºF are not a concern. Maximum CHT value remains 460ºF.

• Cruise Climb:

1. Oxygen——————————————AS REQUIRED

2. Power Lever————————————FULL FORWARD

Cruise climb with the mixture lever set at lean of peak (LOP) is acceptable provided CHTs remain under 380ºF. This climb procedure may not be possible in very hot weather, but in moderate temperature conditions LOP cruise climbs are sometimes useful, especially at altitudes up to 18,000 feet.

Cruise climb with the mixture lever set at lean of peak (LOP) is acceptable provided CHTs remain under 380ºF. This climb procedure may not be possible in very hot weather, but in moderate temperature conditions LOP cruise climbs are sometimes useful, especially at altitudes up to 18,000 feet.

3. Mixture—————————————–17.0 to 17.6 GPH

Above 18,000 feet, or if for any reason CHTs exceed 410ºF, climbs should be made at full rich mixture as described in the Climb checklist.

4. Minimum Airspeed—————————130 KIAS

Depending on aircraft weight and OAT, LOP cruise climbs will result in 600 to 700 FPM rates of climb at 130-140 KIAS. If cylinder head temperatures consistently exceed 380ºF, use higher airspeeds for better cooling, and/or make further reductions in fuel flow.

5. Electric Fuel Pump—————————-LOW BOOST

– Cruise:

Two climb procedures are available: A normal climb at Vy, and a cruise climb with the mixture set at lean of peak.

1) Oxygen———————————————–AS REQUIRED

2) Fuel Pump——————————————-OFF

Under some extreme environmental conditions, the use of the electric fuel pump in the HIGH BOOST / PRIME position may be required in flight above 18,000 feet to adequately suppress vapor formation. This condition is most likely to occur during climbs above 18,000 feet on hot days with warm or hot fuel in the tanks. Except as an aid in starting the engine, do not use HIGH BOOST / PRIME below 18,000 feet. Above 18,000 feet, if there is a loss of fuel flow or vapor locking is suspected, turn the electric fuel pump to HIGH BOOST /PRIME and reset the mixture as required to maintain adequate stable fuel flow.

Vapor locking is most often indicated by any or a combination of the following:

• Fluctuations in normal fuel flow possibly coupled with abnormal engine operation

• Rising EGTs and TIT coupled with falling fuel flow

• Rising CHTs (late in the process) After the aircraft is in cruise flight for 30 minutes or more, the electric fuel pump should be returned to the LOW BOOST position or OFF, as conditions permit.

3) Cruise Power—————————————-SET

• Caution • Avoid continuous operation with the fuel flow set between 18 GPH and 30 GPH with MAP above 26” Hg. This will cause unacceptably high CHTs. Intermittent or transient operation only is permitted in this fuel flow range at high MAP settings, and then only when all CHTs remain below 420°F (216°C)

• Note • During colder weather, fuel flows towards the upper end of the cruise fuel flow ranges will be appropriate. During hotter weather, fuel flows nearer to the middle or lower end of the cruise fuel flow ranges will be appropriate.

4) Mixture———————————————-LEAN as required

5) Engine Parameters———————————MONITOR

6) Fuel Flow & Balance——————————–MONITOR

Position the electric fuel pump to the LOW BOOST position when switching from one tank to another. Failure to activate the electric fuel pump before transfer could result in delayed restart if the engine should quit due to fuel starvation.

– Maximum Cruise Power:

1) Cruise Altitude————————————–ESTABLISHED

2) Power Lever—————————————–2700 RPM

3) Mixture———————————————-FULL RICH for 1-2 minutes

4) Highest CHT—————————————–VERIFY LESS THAN 380ºF

5) Power Lever 2500 RPM at max available MAP (29.0″ to 29.6″)

6) Electric Fuel Pump———————————-LOW BOOST

The electric fuel pump should be left in the LOW BOOST position for the first 30 minutes of cruise flight.

7) Mixture———————————————–FULL RICH

Smoothly reduce fuel flow over a period of 3 to 6 seconds to approximately 16.0 to 17.6 GPH at 2500 RPM at maximum available MAP (29.0” to 29.6″)

• Note • During fuel flow reduction, a slight deceleration of the aircraft will occur as the mixture passes from rich of peak TIT to lean of peak TIT.

8) Engine Parameters———————————-MONITOR

If any CHT persistently exceeds 380ºF, LEAN mixture further in 0.3 GPH increments until all CHT’s are under 380ºF. If, over time, all CHT’s are consistently under 380ºF, the mixture may be increased in approximately 0.1 to 0.2 GPH increments for increased speed. During lean of peak (LOP) cruise operation, fuel flow should not exceed 18.0 GPH under any conditions

• Note • Generally, each 0.5 GPH change in fuel flow when lean of peak and near 380ºF, will result in approximately a 15ºF change in CHT. Increasing fuel flow will make the CHT hotter. Decreasing fuel flow will make the CHT cooler. It may take several minutes for the CHT to stabilize after a change in fuel flow.

9) Electric Fuel Pump———————————-AS REQUIRED

After 30 minutes of cruise, note fuel flow, then turn electric fuel pump OFF and reset fuel flow to noted value. If fuel flow is not stable, set electric fuel pump to LOW BOOST and reset fuel flow to noted value.  Position the electric fuel pump to the LOW BOOST position when switching from one tank to another. Failure to activate the electric fuel pump before transfer could result in delayed restart if the engine should quit due to fuel starvation.

– Descent:

1) Altimeter———————————————SET

2) Cabin Heat/Defrost———————————AS REQUIRED

3) Landing Lights—————————————ON

4) Fuel System——————————————CHECK

5) Mixture———————————————–AS REQUIRED

Richen the mixture as required to avoid developing an excessively lean mixture during the descent.  Rapid Descent:For a rapid descent, use the mixture control to maintain CHTs above 240°F.

6) Brake Pressure—————————————CHECK

7) Oxygen————————————————AS REQUIRED

– Before Landing:

1) Seat Belt & Shoulder Harness———————-SECURE

2) Fuel Pump——————————————–BOOST

3) Mixture———————————————–AS REQUIRED

4) Flaps————————————————–AS REQUIRED

• Caution • Landings should be made with full flaps. Landings with less than full flaps are recommended only if the flaps fail to deploy or to extend the aircraft’s glide distance due to engine malfunction. If a landing is to be made with flaps at 50% or 0%, power should be used to achieve a normal glidepath and a low descent  rate. Flare should be minimized.

5) Autopilot——————————————–DISENGAGED

– Go Around (Balked Landing):

1) Autopilot——————————————–DISENGAGE

The autopilot should be disengaged using the A/P DISC/Trim Switch on the yoke. Fly the go-around procedure manually.

2) Power Lever—————————————-FULL FORWARD

3) Flaps————————————————-50%

4) Airspeed——————————————–75-80 KIAS

After clear of obstacles:

5) Flaps————————————————-UP

– After Landing:

1) Power Lever—————————————-1000 RPM

2) Fuel Pump——————————————OFF

3) Flaps————————————————-UP

4) Transponder—————————————-STBY

5) Lights————————————————AS REQUIRED

6) Pitot Heat——————————————-OFF

– Shutdown:

1) Fuel Pump (if used)——————————–OFF

2) Throttle———————————————IDLE

3) Ignition Switch————————————CYCLE – MAG GROUNDING CHECK

Perform a check of the ignition system by quickly turning the ignition switch to OFF and back to BOTH.

• Caution • Note that the engine hesitates as the switch cycles through the “OFF” position. If the engine does not hesitate, one or both magnetos are not grounded. Prominently mark the propeller as being “Hot,” and contact maintenance personnel immediately

4) Mixture———————————————CUTOFF

5) All Switches—————————————-OFF

6) Magnetos——————————————-OFF

7) ELT————————————————–TRANSMIT LIGHT OUT

After a hard landing, the ELT may activate. If this is suspected, press the RESET button.

8) Chocks, Tie-downs, Pito Covers—————-AS REQUIRED

– Normal Airspeeds:

1) Takeoff Rotation:

• Nomal, Flaps 50%: 70 KIAS

• Obstacle Clearance, Flaps 50%: 78 KIAS

2) En Route Climb (Flaps Up):

• Normal, Full Power, Full Rich Climb: 120 KIAS

• Altitudes:

Sea Level          10,000 ft

Normal:                                 110-120 —-

Best Rate of Climb:                101                        96

Best Angle of Climb:             79                         83

3) Landing Approach:

• Normal Approach (Flaps Up): 90-95 KIAS

• Normal Approach (Flaps 50%): 85-90 KIAS

• Normal Approach (Flaps 100%: 80-85 KIAS

• Short Field (Flaps 100% Vref): 77 KIAS

4) Go Around, Flaps 50%, Full Power: 80 KIAS

5) Turbulent Air Penetration:

Maximum recommended turbulent air penetration.

• 3,400 lb: 133 KIAS

• 2,900 lb: 123 KIAS

6) Crosswind:

Maximum demonstrated crosswind velocity.

• Takeoff or Landing: 20 knots

Chapter 5 – Performance Data – April 22, 2010

– Takeoff Distance:

1) Headwind: subtract 10% from table distance for each 12 knots headwind.

2) Tailwind: add 10% to the table distance for each 2 knots tailwind up to 10 knots.

3) Grass Runway, Dry: add 20% to the ground roll distance.

4) Grass Runway, Wet: add 60% to the ground roll distance.

5) Sloped Runway: increase table distance by 22% of the ground roll distance at sea level, 30% at 5,000 ft, 43% at 10,000 ft for each 1% of upslope.  Decrease table distances by 7% of the ground roll distance at sea level, 10% at 5,000 ft, 14% at 10,000 ft for each 1% of downslope.

-Rate of Climb:

Example Interpolation:

4,000 ft       1,177

4,500 ft             X

6,000 ft        1,054

(500 / 2,000) = (X / 123)      =       cross multiply    =        (500 x 123) / 2,000   =   X   =   30.75    Subtract from 1,177 – 30.75  = 1,146.25

-Cruise Performance:

1) Subtract 10 KTAS if the nose wheel fairings are removed.

2) Monitor cylinder head temperatures.  If any CHT persistently exceeds 380ºF, then LEAN the mixture further in 0.3 GPH increments until all CHTs are  under 380ºF.  As a rule of thumb, each 0.5 GPH change in fuel flow when LOP and near 380F will result in approximately a 15ºF change in CHT.  Increasing fuel flow will make the CHT hotter.  decreasing fuel flow will make the CHT cooler.  It may take several minutes for the CHTs to fully stabilize after a change in fuel flow.


1) Fuel remaining for cruise is 81.0 gal usable, less 1.5 gal for taxi, less climb fuel, less 105. gallons for 45 minutes IFR reserve fuel at 60% power.

2) This chart is applicable only if the Lean of Peak climb technique is used; use the Rich of Peak Range/Endurance Profile chart if Rich of Peak climb technique is used.

3) Rand and endurance shown includes descent to final destination at approximately 178 KIAS and 500fpm.

4) Range is decreased by 5% if the nose wheel pant and fairings are removed.

5) Range is decreased by 15% if the nose and main wheel pants and fairings are removed.

-Landing Distance:

1) Headwind: subtract 10% from table distances for each 13 knots headwind.

2) Tailwind: add 10% to table distances for each 2 knots tailwind up to 10 knots.

3) Grass Runway, Dry: add 20% to ground roll distance.

4) Grass Runway, Wet: add 60% to ground roll distance.

Chapter 7 – Airplane Description – April 25, 2010

-Flight Controls:

1) Ailerons & Elevators: controlled with a combination of push/pull rods, cables and pulleys.

2) Rudder: controlled with a combination of torque tubes, cables, and pulleys.

3) Flaps: controlled with a linear actuator and torque tubes.

-Landing Gear:

1) Main Landing Gear: bolted to the composite wing structure between the wing spar and shear web.  Each main gear wheel is equipped with an independent, hydraulically operated, single-disc type brake.  The composite main gear strut is attached to the wing structure at 2 points.  The strut transfers the landing impact energy to the airframe.

2) Nose Landing Gear: attached to the engine mount and utilizes free castering nose wheel.

3) Brake System: The main wheels have hydraulically operated, single-disc type brakes, individually activated by floor-mounted to pedals at both pilot stations.  A parking brake mechanism holds induced hydraulic pressure on the disc brakes for parking.

• A temperature indicator may be installed o the piston housing.  This indicator should be cleaned and inspected before flight.  If the indicator center is black, the brake assembly has been overheated.  The brake linings must be inspected and O-rings replaced.


1) General:

a) Alternator #1:

• gear driven

• internally rectified

• 100-amp

• mounted on the right front of engine

• regulated to 28 volts

• connected to main distribution bus in the master control unit (MCU) through a 60-amp fuse

b) Alternator #2:

• belt driven

• internally rectified

• 70-amp

• mounted on the right front of engine

• regulated to 28.75 volts

• connected to main distribution bus in the master control unit (MCU) through a 80-amp fuse

c) Battery #1:

• aviation-grade

• 12 cell

• lead-acid

• 24 volt

• 10amp/hour

• mounted on right front firewall

d) Master Control Unit (MCU):

• located on left firewall

• controls ALT 1, ALT 2, starter, landing light, external power, and power generation functions

e) Propeller Flange: provides an attach point for the propeller

f) Propeller Governor: regulates the blow of engine oil to and from the constant speed propeller, controlling propeller blade pitch and engine speed.

g) Starter:

• mounted on right side of the engine accessory case

• the motor is geared to the crankshaft through a worm gear and clutch assembly

• turning the ignition key energizes the motor, turning the crankshaft and starting the engine

2) Controls:

a) Mixture Control: connects the mixture control lever to the mixture control valve, which is integral to the engine-driven fuel pump.

b) Propeller Control: the power lever is connected to the propeller governor by a controlling cable. Maintains 2500 RPM in cruise power settings and 2700 at full power.

c) Throttle Control:

• the power lever is connected to the air throttle/fuel-metering valve by a control cable

• moving the power leverl adjusts the air throttle butterfly valve, controlling the volume of air entering the intake manifold.

• throttle fuel metering valve is adjusted simultaneously, metering fuel flow to the injection manifold.

3) Exhaust:

a) Exhaust Headers:

• each exhaust header assembly consists of three exhaust pipes.

• the pipes route exhaust gasses from the cylinder exhaust valves into a turbine and a wastegate.

b) Shroud & Heat Exchanger: a small heat exchanger surrounds a portion of both the right and left exhaust pipes.  Hot air from the induction system upper deck is circulated through the exchangers, heated further, then routed to the cabin for heat and windshield defrost.

4) Fuel:

a) Electric Fuel Pump: mounted on the firewall and provides engine priming and vapor suppression.

b) Gascolator: contains a filter which removes contaminants from the fuel before it reaches the engine-driven fuel pump.

c) Electric-Driven Fuel Pump:

• draws form the selected wing tank and passes it to a mixture control valve which is integral to the pump.

• upper deck pressure is plumbed to an aneroid in the pump which controls the amount of fuel that goes to the engine or back to the fuel tanks through a return line.

• high upper deck pressure will cause the aneroid to contract and increase the amount of fuel available to the engine.

• low upper deck pressure will cause the aneroid to expand and send more fuel through the return line.

d) Throttle Metering Valve: adjusts fuel flow in response to the pilot controlled power lever position.  the valve is integrated into the throttle body and moves with the air throttle butterfly valve.

e) Fuel Manifold Valve: divides the fuel flow and delivers a precise amount of fuel to each fuel injector nozzle via the injector lines.

f) Fuel Injectors: receive fuel from the manifold valve and spray the fuel directly into the intake valve chambers.  High pressure air from the upper deck is plumbed to each injector to prevent the backflow of fuel through the injector at high altitude.

g) Cylinder Fuel Drains: provided at each cylinder to drain excess fuel from the intake valve chambers.  A check valve is installed in the cylinder drain manifold to prevent loss of manifold pressure.  The valve closes when manifold pressure is below ambient pressure.

5) Ignition:

a) Magneto Air Filter: an inline filter removes contamination and moisture before the upper deck air enters the magnetos.

b) Magnetos:

• geared to the engine at the accessory case.

• high-voltage electrical current is created by the magnetos and delivered to the spark plugs via ignition wires.

• the magnetos receive high-pressure air from the upper deck to prevent electrical arcing within the magneto.

c) Ignition Wires: shielded ignition wires (leads) carry the high-voltage electical current from the magnetos to the spark plugs.

d) Spark Plugs: utilize high-voltage electrical current from the magnetos to create a spark for the fuel/air ignition.

6) Indicating:

a) Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT): sensors mounted on all six cylinders.

b) Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT): sensors mounted on all six cylinders exhaust pipes.

c) Fuel Flow: transducer provides a fuel-flow rate signal for fuel flow indications to the cockpit.

d) Manifold Pressure: sensors mounted at the throttle body.

e) Oil Pressure

f) Oil Temperature

g) Tachometer: shows RPMs

h) Turbine Inlet Temperature (TIT): senses exhaust gas temp just prior to the turbines.

7) Induction:

a) Alternate Air Source:

• consists of a magnet latched door on the left side of the induction system.  If any restriction of the induction air filter occurs, the door will open automatically.  The door provides an alternate path for warm air from the lower side of the engine compartment to go to both turbochargers.

• MFD & PFD will provide a message alerting the pilot that the door is open.

• after the air filter blockage is removed, the alternate air door may be closed by simply retarding the power lever momentarily & the door will re-latch automatically.

• in some instances, if there is an unusual surge in the engine power, especially at high altitudes, the alternate air door may become unlatched. In that event, again, simply retarding the throttle momentarily will re-latch the alternate air door.

b) Absolute Pressure Controller:

• uses the upper deck (compressed) air pressure to regulate the oil pressure a the wastegate controller.

• the absolute pressure controller and wastegate controller work together to provide proper boost pressure to the engine.

c) Compressors:

• compress induction air to approximately 33 in Hg.

• the air compression causes an increase in temperature, so the air is routed from each compressor to an intercooler.

• the portion of the induction system before the compressors is referred to as the “lower deck” and the portion of the system after the compressor is called the “upper deck”.

d) Induction Air Filter: air normally enters the induction manifold through the induction air filter.  The filter removes particles from the air before it enters the system.

e) Induction Manifold: divides the airflow evenly and directs it to each cylinder.

f) Intercoolers: air flowing from the compressors is at approximately 33 in Hg and is very warm.  The intercoolers cool the induction air, reducing the air pressure to 29.6 in Hg.

g) Overboost Control: valve prevents an overboost condition by opering to relieve excess pressure.

h) Turbo Scavenger Pump: installed to pull oil through the turbine/compressor assemblies and return it to the oild sump.

i) Turbines: mounted to the exhaust system so that exhaust gases will spin the turbines at high speed.  The turbines are connected directly to the compressor.

j) Wastegate Actuator: utilizes engine oil pressure to open both wastegates.  Oil pressure at the wastegate actuator is regulated by the absolute pressure controller.

k) Wastegates:

• valves that control turbine speeds by adjusting the amount of engine exhaust that flows through each turbine.

• closed wastegates force the maximum amount of exhaust through the turbines. Open wastegates allow exhaust to bypass the turbines and vent overboard through the exhaust tail pipes.

8) Cooling:

a) Crankcase Breather: consists of a flexible tube which allows excess crankcase pressure to vent overboad.

b) Cylinder Fins: rows of fins on each cylinder greatly increase the outside surface area, multiplying the effect of the cooling air flowing through the cowling.

c) Engine Baffles:

• installed around, between, and underneath the cylinders to guide cooling airflow.  Ensure all cylinders are equally cooled.

• rubber strips aournd the outer baffles create a seal against the inside surface of the upper cowling.

d) Oil Cooler: transfers heat from the engine oil to air flowing through the cooler.  The oil cooler is equiped with a temp control valve to control oil flow through the cooler.

e) Oil Filler Tube: used to add engine oil.

g) Oil Filter: the full-flow oil filter removes contaminants from the oil before it is sent to the engine rotating parts and piston inner domes.  If it becomes blocked, a bypass relief valve will open will open allowing unfiltered oil to flow to the engine.

h) Oil Sump:

• 8-quart capacity oil sump is a wet-type sump.

• oil for engine lubrication and cooling is drawn from the sump through an oil suction strainer screen and directed to the oil cooler.

• a plug at the bottom of the sump is provided for draining the engine oil.

i) Pressure Relief Valve: prevents excessive oil pressure by allowing excess oil to return to the sump.

j) Temperature Control Valve (vernatherm):

• directs the flow of oil to the oil cooler. If the oil is cold, the valve allows the oil to bypass the cooler.

• Modulates to maintain oil temperature in the normal range of approximately 180ºF.


1) Notes: The turbonormalizing system compresses air to compensate for the loss of air pressure as an aircraft climbs. This allows the engine to maintain sea level rated horsepower up to an dbeyond the maximum operating altitude of 25,000 ft.

2) This differs from a turbocharged system, which boosts manifold pressure above ambient sea level pressure to increase the amount of horse power an engine is capable of producing.


-Fuel System:

1) Fuel Annunciator:

• illuminated by the fuel quantity indicator to indicate low fuel when both tanks are below 14 gals.

• since both tanks must be below approximately 14 gals to activate the the annunciator, it could illuminate with as little as 14 gallons in one tank during level flight if the other tank were allowed to run dry!

2) Fuel Tanks:

• Each integral wing tank is bounded by the upper and lower wing skins, main spar web, aft wing shear web, and inboard and outboard fuel tank ribs.

• each fuel tank has a total capacity of 47.25 gal, of which 46 gal is usable.

3) Collector Tank:

• provided at the inboard wing root area for each wing tank.

• each collector tank has the capacity of approximately 3.5 gal.

• the collector tank offers a sediment and water collection area, and capacity for ensuring adequate fuel flow to the engine during uncoordinated maneuvering.

• drains are located at the fuel system low points.

4) Fuel Selector Valve:

• installed in the center console and is isolated from the cabin in case of leakage.

• left, right, and off positions.

• a knob located on top of the handle must be pulled out in order to switch the valve to the off position.

5) Engine Driven Fuel Pump & Mixture Control:

• geared to the engine and incorporates a mixture control valve.

• the valve meters fuel flow based on the mixture control lever position.

• upper deck air pressure is supplied to an aneroid in the engine-driven fuel pump to control how much fuel is supplied to the engine and how much fuel gets returned to the fuel tanks via the return line.

6) Electric Auxiliary Pump:

•  provided for priming and vapor suppression.

• the pump operates at 2 speeds:

→High Boost/Prime: quickly sends fuel for priming to all 6 cylinders.

→Low Boost: delivers a continuous 4-6 psi fuel flow boost for vapor suppression in a hot fuel condition.

• the pump is controlled by the fuel pump switch on the center console.

7) Gascolator: filters the fuel before it enters the engine-driven fuel pump and mixture control.

8) Throttle Metering Valve:

• meters fuel flow based on the throttle lever position.

• it opens and closes along with the air throttle valve so that changing the power lever position simultaneously adjusts both the air throttle valve and fuel metering valve.

9) Fuel Manifold Valve: divides the fuel flow and delivers a precise amount of fuel to each fuel injector nozzle via the injector lines.

10) Fuel Injectors:

• nozzles receive fuel from the fuel manifold valve and spray the fuel directly into the intake valve chambers.

• compressed upper deck air from the turbonormalizing system is plumbed to the fuel injectors to prevent the backflow of fuel through the injectors at high altitudes.

-Electrical System Simulation:

1) BAT 1:

• aviation-grade, 12-cell, lead-acid, 24 volt, 10-amp/hour battery mounted on right firewall.

• switching the BAT 1 switch ON energized the BAT 1 relay and connects BAT 1 to the Main Distribution Bus 1 in the MCU.

• BAT 1 is charged by ALT 1 through the Main Distribution Bus 1.

2) BAT 2:

• composed of two 12-volt, 12-amp/hour, sealed, lead-acid batteries connected in series to provide 24 volts.

• located in a vented, acid-resistant container mounted behind the aft cabin bulkhead.

• switching the BAT 2 switch ON energizes the BAT 2 relay and connects BAT 2 to the Essential Bus 1 at the circuit breaker panel.

3) Alternator 1:

• gear driven, internally rectified, 100-apm alternator mounted on the right front of the engine.

• regulated to 28 volts

• charges BAT 1 and supplies power to the Main Distribution Bus 1.

• self-exciting (not self-starting) and requires BAT 1 voltage for field excitation in order to start up.

4) Alternator 2:

• belt-driven, internally rectified, 70-amp alternator mounted on the front left of the engine.

• regulated to 28.75 volts.

• supplies power to the Main Distribution Bus 2.

• self-exciting (not self-starting) and requires Essential Bus 2 voltage (from ALT 1, BAT 1, or BAT 2) for field excitation in order to start up.

5) Master Control Unit (MCU):

• located on the left firewall.

• controls ALT1, ALT2, starter, landing lights , external power, and power generation functions.

• in addition to ALT1 & ALT2 voltage regulation, the MCU also provides external power reverse polarity protection, alternator over-voltage protection, as well as electrical system health annunciations to the Integrated Avionics System.

6) Starter:

• the electric starter motor is mounted on the right side of the engine accessory case.

• the motor is geared to the crankshaft through a worm gear and clutch assembly.

• turning the ignition key energizes the motor, thus turning the crankshaft, and starting the engine.

7) Main Distribution Bus 1:

• feeds power from ALT1 to the A/C Bus1, A/C Bus 2, and Main Bus 3 buses at the circuit breaker panel.

• directly powers the landing lights.

• isolation diodes between the Main Distribution Bus 1, Essential Distribution Bus and the Main Distribution Bus 2 prevent ALT2 from powering the Main Distribution Bus 1 or charging BAT1.

8) Main Distribution Bus 2:

• the output from ALT2 is connected to the Main Distribution Bus 2 in the MCU through an 80-amp fuse.

• Main Distribution Bus 2 powers the Non Essential Bus, Main Bus 1, Main Bus 2, and the Essential Distribution Bus.

• isolation diodes between the Main Distribution Bus 2 and Main Distribution Bus 1 prevent Alternator 2 from powering the Main Distribution Bus 1 during normal and ALT1 failure situations.

9) Essential Bus:

• fed by both Main Distribution Bus 1 and Main Distribution Bus 2 in the MCU through two 50-amp fuses.

• powers Essential Bus 1 and Essential Bus 2, which include:


→ADC 1

→standby attitude indicator

→roll trim

→pitch trim


→Com 1

→stall warning

→engine instruments


• both alternators and both batteries can provide power to the Essential Distribution Bus in emergencies.

-Flight Deck Layout

-Environmental System:

1) Fresh Air Inlet: ventilation and cooling is provided by ducting fresh air from the NACA vent on the right lower cowl to the mixing chamber located on the lower right portion of the firewall.

2) Heat Exchanger:

• hot compressed air from each turbonormalizing system compressor is ducted to the heat exchangers.

• as engine exhaust passes through the left & right tail pipes, additional heat from the exhaust is collected by the heat exchangers.

• heated air is then routed to the mixing chamber.

• inside the heat exchangers, the upper deck air pressure is greater than the exhaust gas pressure, reducing the chance of carbon monoxide poisoning from an exhaust leak.

3) Mixing Chamber:

• the heated air from the heat exchanger and the fresh air from the right cowling inlet are allowed to mix in the mixing chamber mounted to the firewall.

• the mixed air then flows through the airflow valve into the air distribution system.

• the proportion of heated air-to-fresh air mixed in the air mixing chamber is regulated by manipulating the cabin temperature selector.

4) Evaporator:

•  inside the evaporator, the liquid refrigerant changes state from liquid to a gas, and in doing so absorbs the heat from the air passing over the evaporator coil, cooling the air before it enters teh distribution manifold.

• as the air passes through the evaporator and cools, moisture from the air condenses and is drained overboard through the belly of the aircraft.

• from the evaporator, the refrigerant vapor returns to the compressor where the cycle is repeated.

5) Blower Fan:

• conditioned air is circulated through the system by a 3-speed blower an.

• the fan is powered by 28 VDC supplied through a 15-amp FAN circuit breaker and a 7.5-amp COMPRESSOR/CONTROL circuity breaker.

6) Distribution Manifold: uses butterfly valves to control airflow to the floor and defrost vents.

-Pitot-Static System:

1) Pitot Tube:  located under the left wing and provides pitot (ram) air pressure for the airspeed indicator and primary flight display.

2) Water Traps: located under the cabin floor, installed at low points to collect any moisture that enters the system, drained at annual inspection.

3) Static Ports: detect static atmospheric pressure and are located on either side of the fuselage just aft of the rear seats.

4) Differential Pressure Switch:

• senses the difference between static and pitot (ram) pressure.

• activates the Skywatch system approximately 8 seconds after the aircraft reaches 35 KIAS ,and deactivates it approximately 24 seconds after the airspeed falls below 35 KIAS.

• Skywatch system may be operated on the ground by manually activating it using the MFD.

5) Airspeed Indicator: measures the difference between static and pitot (ram) pressure, the results are displayed in knots on an airspeed scale.

6) Altimeter: senses the local barometric pressure adjusted for the altimeter setting and displays the results on the instrument in feet.

7) Pitot Mast Blockage:

• in this simulation, the pitot tube is blocked with ice and the drain hole is assumed to be clear, allowing static pressure to enter the line.

• airspeed indicator will read approximately zero.

• if the PFD determines that valid air data is unavailable, the airspeed data will be removed and replaced by a red X.

• turning on pitot heat will remove the blockage.

8) Static Port Blockage:

• in this simulation, both static ports are completely blocked, trapping static pressure in the system.

• the standby altimeter will not indicate changing altitude.

• if the PFD determines that valid air data is unavailable, the airspeed, altitude, and vertical speed data will be removed and replaced by red X’s.

• opening the alternate static source will restore normal static system operation.

• airspeed indications that may vary slightly with altitude changes with blocked static ports.


• CAPS consists of an activation system, a parachute, a solid-propellant rocket to deploy the parachute, and a harness embedded within the fuselage structure.

1) Activation System:

• Plunger & Spring:

→pulling the activation T-handle pulls the activation cable and the firing pin actuator, compressing the rocket igniter spring and cocking the plunger.

→once the plunger is pulled back far enough, the ball bearings holding it to the firing pin actuator are released, allowoing the spring to drive the plunger into the firing pins.

• Fining Pins:

→when the ball bearings release the plunger from the firing pin actuator, the spring drives the plunger into the firing pins.

→the firing pins then strike the primers which ignite the primary boosters in the end of the igiter.

• Primers: the shotgun-type primers are activated when struck by the firing pins, the primers ignite the primary boosters in the end of the igniter.

• Primary Boosters: the black powder and magnesium primary boosters are ignited by the primers.  The primary boosters ignite a secondary booster contained in the rocket motor base.

• Rocket Motor: a secondary black powder and magnesium booster is contained in the rocket motor base, the primary boosters ignite this secondary booster, which sprays hot particles past the rocket nozzle and across the surface of the rocket motor’s solid propellant used to ensure ignition of the rocket motor.

2) Rocket Extraction:

• Rocket: the CAPS rocket motor uses stored chemical energy in the form of a solid propellant to provide the thrust forces necessary to deploy the parachute.  When ignited, it bursts through the CAPS enclosure cover and flys upward and rearward, pulling out the bridle which connects it to the deployment bag.

• CAPS Cover: the thin composite CAPS cover breaks away when the rocket fires and bursts through.

3) Initial Deployment:

•The parachute is enclosed within a deployment bag that stages the initial deployment and inflation sequence.  The parachute is deployed in stages as the rocket pulls the deployment bag away.

• The deployment bag creates an orderly deployment process by allowing the canopy to inflate only after the rocket motor has pulled the parachute lines taut.  An initial ‘snatch force’ load occurs when the parachute assembly is initially extracted from the deployment bag and is pulled to full line stretch.

• Suspension Lines: are pulled from the deployment bag before the parachute canopy, ensuring that the lines will be pulled taut before the canopy begins to inflate.

• Canopy: exits the deployment bag last. A slider at the base of the canopy will limit the initial inflation.

4) Initial Inflation:

• As the parachute inflates, the forward harness assembly grows taut and pulls free of the fuselage skin.  The rear harness’ shorter section is pulled taut, initiating 8-second fuses for the pyrotechnic line cutters.  After 8 seconds, the cutters will sever a snub line, allowing the aft harness to extend to its full length.

• When air begins to fill the canopy, initial inflation loads result, causing the aircraft to pitch up momentarily.  The parachute is designed to deploy gradually, without generating forces high enough to injure the airplane occupants.

• Forward Harness: a 3-point attachment harness connects the airplane to the parachute.  The 2 forward straps are normally faired into the fuselage skin and attached to the firewall.  As the initial deployment is completed and the canopy begins to inflate, the force rips the forward harness straps free of the fuselage skin.

• Slider: the slider aerodynamically reefs the parachute to limit inflation loads.  The slider is a flat annular shaped fabric panel with metal grommets along its perimeter.  The parachute suspension lines are routed through the grommets so that the slider is free to move along the lines.  The slider, which has a significantly smaller diameter than the fully inflated parachute, is positioned at the top of the suspension lines during initial inflation, limiting the initial inflated diameter of the parachute and hence the inflation loads.  The period of time that the slider remains next to the parachute skirt depends on the dynamic pressure acting on the system.  This allows the payload to decelerate to a speed at which the parachute can fully inflate without generating excessive loads.

5) Parachute Disreef:

• The canopy suspension lines are routed through grommets in an annular-shaped slider, so that the slider is free to move along the suspension lines. Since the slider is positioned at the top of the suspension lines near the canopy at the beginning of the deployment sequence, the slider limits the initial diameter of the parachute and the rate at which the parachute inflates.  As inflation loads increase, the slider moves down the suspension lines, allowing the canopy to fully inflate.

• During canopy inflation, the aircraft will assume a steep nose-low position.  After completion of the deployment cycle, the aft harness will extend to its full length, raising the nose to a slightly nose-low attitude.

6) Snub Line Release:

• When the 8-second pyrotechnic line cutter fuses have expired, the cutters will sever a snub line, allowing the aft harness to extend to its full length and support the aft load.  The airplane then assumes its touchdown attitude; approximately 10º nose down, to optimize cocupant protection.

7) Deployment Scenarios:

a) Mid-Air Collision: may render the airplane unflyable by damaging the control system or primary structure.  If a mid-air collision occurs, immediately determine if the airplane is controllable and structurally capable of continued safe flight and landing.  If it is not, CAPS activation should be considered.

b) Structural Failure: may result from such situations as:

• encountering severe gusts at speeds above the airplane’s structural cruising speed.

• inadvertent full control movements above the airplane’s maneuvering speed.

• exceeding the design load factor while maneuvering.

c) Loss of Control: may result from many situations such as:

• a control system failure (disconnected or jammed controls)

• severe wake turbulence

• severe turbulence causing upset

• severe airframe icing

• sustained pilot disorientation caused by vertigo or panic

• a spiral/spin

d) Landing In Unsafe Terrain: if forced landing is required because of engine failure, fuel exhaustion, excessive structural icing or any other condition, CAPS activation is only warranted if a landing cannot be made that ensures little or not risk to the aircraft occupants.  However, if the condition occurs over terrain thought not to permit such a landing consider CAPS, such as:

• over extremely rough or mountainous terrain

• over water out of gliding distance to land

• over widespread ground fog

• or at night

e) Pilot Incapacitation: may result from anything from a pilot’s medical condition to a bird strike that injures the pilot.  If this occurs and the passengers cannot reasonably accomplish a safe landing, CAPS activation by the passengers should be considered.  This possibility should be explained to the passengers prior to the flight and all appropriate passengers should be briefed on CAPS operation so they could effectively deploy CAPS if required.

8) General Deployment Information:

a) Airspeed: the max speed at which deployment has been demonstrated is 133 KIAS. Deployment at higher speeds could subject the parachute and aircraft to excessive loads that could result in structural failure.  Once a decision has been made to deploy the CAPS, make all reasonable efforts to slow to the minimum possible airspeed.  However, if time and altitude are critical, and/or ground impact is imminent, the CAPS should be activated regardless of airspeed.

b) Altitude:

• No minimum altitude for deployment has been set because the actual altitude loss during a particular deployment depends upon the airplane’s airspeed, altitude, and attitude, as well as other environmental factors.

• In all cases, however, the chances of a successful deployment increase with altitude.

• As a guideline, the demonstrated altitude loss from entry into a one-turn spin until under a stabilized parachute is 920 feet.

• Altitude loss from level flight deployments has been demonstrated at less than 400 feet.

• With these numbers in mind it might be useful to keep 2,000′ AGL in mind as a cut-off decision altitude.   Above 2,000′ there would normally be time to systematically assess and address the aircraft emergency.  Below 2,000′ the decision to activate the CAPS has to come almost immediately in order to maximize the possibility of successful deployment.

• At any altitude, once the CAPS is determined to be the only alternative available for saving the aircraft occupants, deploy the system without delay.

c) Attitude:

• The CAPS has been tested in all flap configurations at speeds ranging from Vso to Va.

• Most CAPS testing was accomplished from a level attitude.

• Deployment from a spin was also tested.

• From these tests it was found that as long as the parachute was introduced to the free air by the rocket, it would successfully recover the aircraft into its level descent attitude under parachute.

• However, it can be assumed that to minimize the chances of parachute entanglement and reduce aircraft oscillations under the parachute, the CAPS should be activated from a wings-level, upright attitude if at all possible.

-Ice Protection:

1) Notes:

• It can prevent, and in certain conditions, remove ice accumulations on flight surfaces by distributing a thin film of glycol-based fluid on the wings, horizontal stabilizer, and propeller. The presence of this fluid lowers the freezing temp on the flight surface below that of the ambient precipitation preventing the formation and adhesion of ice.

• The ice protection system is not intended to remove ice form aircraft on the ground!

• During simulated icing encounters, stall speed increases of approximately 12 knots in the clean configuration and 3 knots in the landing configuration were observed.  Additionally, cruise speed was reduced by at least 20 KCAS and the airplane’s rate of climb decreased by at least 20%.

• Even with the protected flight surfaces totally clear of ice, performance degradation will occur due to ice on unprotected regions.  The amount of degradation cannot be accurately predicted and is therefore, depending on circumstances, advisable to increase approach and landing speeds while using the ice protection system.

• Use extreme caution during approach and landing, being alert to the first signs of pre-stall buffet and an impending stall.

2) System Parts:

a) Fluid Tank: integral to the left wing, 3.5 gal capacity, filled through a locking filler cap on upper left wing.

b) Outlet Strainer: a coarse strainer in the de-icing fluid tank prevents relatively large contaminants from entering system.

c) Strainer Tube: installed to remove contaminants from the de-icing fluid before it enters the metering pump.

d) Metering Pump:

• Upon activation, a 2-speed metering pump, mounted below the left rear passenger seat, supplies fluid pressure to the system.

• Low pump speed provides the required flow during NORMAL operation and high pump speed during MAXIMUM operation.

e) Priming Pump:

• Ensures that the metering pump is primed with de-icing fluid.

• When the system is turned on, the metering pump and the priming pump energize simultaneously.

• The priming pump pulls de-icing fluid from the tank, through a series of strainers, though the metering pump and check valve, and then back to the de-icing tank.

• Within 10 seconds the metering pump primes, begins circulating de-icing fluid through the system, and the priming pump shuts off.

• If no de-icing fluid is evident during the pre-flight inspection, the ice protection system must be purged in accordance with the Airplane Maintenance Manual by a certified tech.

f) Proportioning Units: evenly divide fluid flow and direct the fluid to the porous panels and slinger ring.

g) Porous Panels: de-icing fluid is carried from each proportioning unit to porous panels on the wing and horizontal stabilizer leading edges.  The fluid is discharged at a low, steady flow rate through fine, laser-drilled holes in the porous panels.

h) Slinger Ring: de-icing fluid protects the propeller via a slinger ring mounted  to the spinner backing plate.  Centrifugal forces causes the fluid to flow withing the ring and to be distributed onto grooved rubber boots fitted to the root ends of the propeller blades.

i) Switches:

a) NORM Mode:

• Used when icing conditions are initially encountered and prior to ice accretion.

• Max system operating time in normal mode is approximately 80 minutes.

b) MAX Mode:

• Used when ice has accreted to flight surfaces.

• Max system operati0n time in maximum mode is approximately 40 minutes.

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